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Reference BL W 67 Encyclopedia of Women in Today's World. Encyclopedia of Women's Health. Reference LC G Girl Culture: An Encyclopedia. G 7 International Encyclopedia of Adolescence.
- Women's Studies - Women's Studies - North Hall Library at Mansfield University of PA;
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- Women's Gender, and Sexuality Studies Research Guide: Getting Started;
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R 69 Sage Dictionary of Cultural Studies. The lecturers in this course were originally drawn from a pool of lecturers, researchers and activists until a WS scholar, Sharon Halevy, was hired in Lectures are combined with discussions in small groups, inspired by consciousness-raising groups of the early s and s.
The students, mainly women, come from all sectors of Israeli society. The WS program at Haifa University serves as an efficient bridge between academia and feminist grass-roots organizations in the city. This interaction encourages feminist activists to begin their studies or to return to academia, while also involving students in various feminist grass-roots organizations. The diversity of participants gives them opportunities to comprehend how being a woman in Israeli society affects each differently, according to her cultural background and experience, and how this relates to double oppression.
Although these issues are taken for granted in the United States, multiculturalism and diversity have been considered by Israeli feminists and by WS activists only since the mids. This traditional curriculum had yet to incorporate a feminist analysis of society and of therapy. The course was designed to expose social workers to the new feminist theories about women, gender, sexuality and therapy, as well as to raise their consciousness.
A special feature of the course was The Feminist Theory of Violence against Women, a non-existent issue in the normal social-work curriculum. The model developed for this course, currently employed in other universities around the country, has influenced the curriculum of the schools of social work, where since WS coordinators have been lecturing to first-year students on feminist theories of therapy and violence against women and encouraging students to become involved in feminist organizations such as shelters, rape crises centers and the hotline for battered women.
The Center, which also offers an interdisciplinary specialization for an M. In addition it has been very successful in attracting funding for scholarships for graduate students in WS Lafer Center Brochure, undated. During this period Project KIDMA began offering courses for academic credit, the first of which, sponsored by Naamat, was offered in Karmiel, in an attempt to attract women to complete or to begin academic studies.
A number of women have begun their university studies as a result of this program. Deborah Bernstein, who chaired the WS program from to , began working on the development of an interdisciplinary M. Tamar Katriel, who has been serving as chairperson since , successfully negotiated approval from the various university committees by the spring semester of Haifa University has not found the necessary internal budget and has been unsuccessful in obtaining external funding; despite its leading role in the previous decades, it now lags behind other universities.
Noteworthy progress occurred in , when a contract was signed by the U. The department, headed by Hannah Naveh, enrolled its first students in Singer, Bar-Ilan University is a good example of internal university support of such programs. Beginning in the middle s, Dafna Izraeli had unsuccessfully made efforts to establish a WS program. Her proposal was finalized in — and opened in as the Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Gender Studies, granting both M.
Gewurz Center for Gender Research. What is obvious is that major steps have been made by the various WS programs when large external endowments were made by foreign donors. Establishment of WS programs at colleges throughout Israel is lagging, although most offer one or two courses.
Unfortunately the Center was closed in Bijaoui, Enker accepted this role following a commitment from her colleagues that the chair would be rotated and all of the program members would fill this position. The Center undertook a variety of projects aimed at finding ways to work towards gender equity within the existing system. A core curriculum in gender equity was and continues to be offered to students. It consists of a cluster of interdisciplinary courses specifically designed to examine from a feminist perspective the validity of concepts, theories and generalizations in the various fields of study as they relate to education.
In addition to the core curriculum the Center developed in-service training programs for teachers in the field and workshops for staff and students on prevention of sexual harassment [Malka Enker, personal communication].
Although new materials have been prepared, schools continue to use older texts because of limited funds. It includes one unit on sexism and language and another unit for English as a second language.
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The pre-school feminist teacher training institute Dal Tiflal Arabi of Acre has been at the forefront in developing gender-fair teaching material for Arab students. Formed in by Virginia Snitow, this group continues to raise money to fund feminist projects in Israel. A major project, beginning in and eventually encompassing the five universities, was the sponsorship of a series of WS public lectures—the Virginia L. Snitow Lecture Series. The course has also been taught by Nabila Espanioly.
Although discussion on the formation of an Israeli WS Association began in the idea gained momentum only in , following a meeting called by Sylvie Fogiel-Bijaoui at Beit Berl College. A major goal of the new organization was to strengthen the ties between, and broaden cooperation among, WS scholars and researchers in academia and in the field. Other major goals included the initiation of new courses and the development of new programs throughout Israel, encouragement of the advancement of feminist scholars within academic institutions, and the establishment of networks for researchers and teachers.
It was agreed that an annual conference held in different areas of the country was imperative. The IAFGS has an ongoing commitment to enabling representation of the various sectors of Israeli society as well as of the geographic areas. It was decided to maintain this representation by encouraging the members to keep these goals in mind when voting. Ultimately, this meeting resulted in the Ford Foundation funding not only each of the programs at the five universities, but also the IAFGS, beginning in These awards greatly enhanced the status of WS within the academic community.
This was also aided by an electronic e-mail list that enables instant communication. Being a feminist academic, especially one closely connected with the feminist movement, poses a constant dilemma.
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Israeli students attend the university to establish academic credentials and to receive a diploma. Following completion of mandatory army service, the vast majority begin their studies in their twenties at the age at which their American peers are completing their B. Except for a minority of aware students, they have not come to hear lectures on feminism or to participate in a consciousness-raising group. In addition, most Israeli universities are relatively insensitive to issues that are commonplace at top American universities. Because of religious and cultural traditionalism and the resulting emphasis on marriage and family Azmon and Izraeli, ; Safir and Rosenmann, , many of the messages of feminism are threatening both to the traditional student and to the establishment.
However, WS students impact on the university curriculum by bringing their new insights and awareness to traditional courses. By demanding that their teachers refer to gender issues and by writing papers analyzing gender in courses where this is not the focus, they educate both teachers and fellow students.