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Book Three discusses the Platonic Idea, which is different from intuitive or abstract ideas, because it does not depend on the principle of sufficient reason. Book Four discusses the ethical implications of the affirmation or denial of the will-to-live. Schopenhauer begins by saying that the world is an idea insofar as it is an object in the mind of a subject. To be a subject is to be a perceiver, and it is not to be a perceived object.

Insofar as a subject becomes a perceived object, the subject no longer exists. Subject and object are not a continuum; they have an either-or relationship. An object begins where a subject ends. All objects of perception must comply with the fourfold principle of sufficient reason. The principle of sufficient reason is fourfold, because it has a physical form, a mathematical form, a logical form, and a moral form.

The physical form is the principle of becoming. The mathematical form is the principle of being. The logical form is the principle of knowing. The moral form is the principle of acting. In his treatise On the Fourfold Root of Sufficient Reason , Schopenhauer explains that each form of the fourfold principle of sufficient reason governs a class of possible objects for a subject. The principle of becoming governs the class of complete representations that may constitute the totality of an experience. The principle of knowing governs the class of a priori intuitions of space and time.

The principle of acting governs the class of objects that consist of only the subjectivity of the will. Thus, the fourfold principle of sufficent reason is a set of rules that governs all objects and events in the phenomenal world.

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Each of the forms of the principle of sufficient reason corresponds to a different aspect of the nature of necessity. The principle of sufficient reason of becoming the law of causality is that an effect must logically follow from a given cause.

The principle of sufficient reason of being the law of time and space is that objects of perception must belong to time and space. The principle of sufficient reason of knowing the law of ground is that a conclusion must logically follow from a given premise. The principle of sufficient reason of acting the law of motivation is that an action must logically follow from a given motive.

Ideas or representations may be primary or secondary. Primary ideas include perceptions or intuitions. Secondary ideas include concepts or abstract representations. Thus, concepts are "representations of representations. Concepts may only be thought, and they cannot be perceived. Only the effects of concepts, and not the concepts themselves, may become objects of possible experience. The effects of concepts include language, action, and science. Matter and intellect together constitute the world as idea, and they cannot be separated from each other.

Thus, idealism as a philosophy of existence does not deny the empirical reality of the physical world. True idealism is a transcendental, and not an empirical, philosophy. Transcendental idealism affirms that a transcendental unity of reason and experience is the condition for knowledge, and it therefore leaves the empirical reality of the world intact.

The world is the will insofar as all ideas of the world manifest the will, says Schopenhauer. The will itself is not governed by the principle of sufficient reason, but all of its representations are governed by the principle of sufficient reason. It is not an idea or representation, but a thing-in-itself. It is the underlying reality of the world, because all objective phenomena depend on it for their being. Furthermore, the will itself is never an object for a subject, and it therefore is objectively unknowable.

It may only be known by means of its appearances or representations, which are governed by the principle of sufficient reason. Although it may be manifested by the actions of individuals, the actions of those individuals may be motivated by their own ideas or perceptions. The will does not explain their actions, because it does not obey the principle of sufficient reason. It may manifest itself in the actions of individuals, regardless of whether they have rational motives or aims.

Idea as motive is not a necessary condition for the activity of the will. Every individual or person, according to Schopenhauer, is in some way a manifestation of the will.

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An individual is a knowing subject whose will is manifested in the world as representation. An individual may know his own will only by its manifestations. No individual can know his own will as it exists in itself. An individual's own actions are manifestations of his own will and must therefore obey the principle of sufficient reason. Thus, an individual is not free to act in any way he pleases, because all of his actions are governed by necessity. The world is an idea insofar as it is an object of perception, but the world is the will insofar as all of our perceptions of the world are acts of conscious or unconscious will.

The World as Will and Idea, Volume 2

The will is the being-in-itself of the phenomenal world. The world as an idea objectifies the will, but there is no boundary between subject and object in the will itself. The will is irrational. It is comprehensible in terms of its objective manifestations, but its inner nature can never be known or explained.

It transcends time and space, which together constitute the principle of sufficient reason of being. Time and space are conditions for manifestations of the will, but the will itself is unconditioned by time or space. The plurality of things in time and space is an objectification of the will.

The will is not a necessary cause of its manifestations in the phenomenal world, because it is not governed by the principle of sufficient reason. The relationship between freedom and necessity is also the relationship between the will and its manifestations in time and space. Moreover, the will is not an aim or desire to do something, and it has no motive or purpose in its willing. The principle of sufficient reason, which declares that actions must logically follow from some motive, governs only manifestations of the will and not the will itself.

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The will manifests itself in the world of individual things and in the world of individual ideas or concepts. Each individual act of will may require a motive, but the principle of sufficient reason of acting applies only to these acts of will, and not to the will itself. The will is independent of time, space, plurality, causality, reason, and motive. The will cannot properly be described as conscious, because consciousness is always consciousness of something, and thus implies a relation between a subject and an object.

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The will is neither a perceiving subject nor a perceived object. The Platonic Idea is the only adequate objectification of the will, says Schopenhauer. The Platonic Idea is the object of art, and thus is knowable as an object of perception. However, subject and object are not separated in the Platonic Idea, which is the most universal kind of Idea as an act of will.

The Platonic Idea is an eternal Idea, which is independent of the principle of sufficient reason. Schopenhauerian idealism differs from Platonic idealism in its viewpoint regarding the nature of ultimate reality. According to Schopenhauer, a table or a chair is an object of perception and is thus a manifestion of an act of will. The idea of a table or chair is an act of will, and the will is ultimate reality. However, according to Plato, a table or a chair expresses the idea of a table or chair, and the idea of the table or chair is ultimate reality.

According to Schopenhauer, knowledge may be intuitive or abstract. Intuitive knowledge is derived from primary ideas intuitions or perceptions , while abstract knowledge is derived from secondary ideas concepts or abstract representations.

All knowledge, except for knowledge of Platonic Ideas, depends on the principle of sufficient reason. Objective representations of the will are only knowable insofar as they are governed by the principle of sufficient reason. All knowledge depends on objectification of the will. Schopenhauer Y Freud ponencia.

Introduzione a Schopenhauer. Schopenhauer Blackwell Great Minds. The Philosophy of Schopenhauer. Schopenhauer, Nietzsche, Freud. Shakespeare the World As Stage. Recommend Documents. Schopenhauer World as Will and Representation Payne In two vol Payne In two volum The author Representation and Reality Representation and Mind Preface This book is primarily a criticism of currently fashionable philosophical views held in and around the cogniti Your name.

The World as Will and Idea, Arthur SCHOPENHAUER Vol 2 of 3 Audiobook Part 2

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