PDF Sliding Mode Control of Switching Power Converters: Techniques and Implementation

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Sliding mode control of switching power converters : Techniques and implementation.

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Manufactured in The Netherlands. The design and implementation of a CMOS analog integrated circuit that provides versatile sliding- mode control laws for high-frequency switching power converters is described.


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The controller circuit implements general-purpose linear-surface state control laws incorporating compensating dynamics. The analog controller in- tegrated circuit considers current-mode circuit techniques, hence exhibiting good performance as far as operation speed, power consumption, suitability to poorly regulated power supplies and robustness in front of interferences are concerned.

Compared to previous designs, the circuit allows the extension of switching frequency operating margin in more than one decade. The circuit allows modular connection, being composed of externally linearized transcon- ductors based on current conveyors, current-mode amplifiers and filtering stages, and a transimpedance high-speed hysteretic comparator.

Full-transistor-level post-layout simulations for a CMOS 0. The circuit may be used either as a standalone IC controller or as controller circuit that is technology-compatible with on-chip switching power converters and on-chip loads for future powered Systems on Chip.

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Key Words: integrated circuit controller, sliding-mode controller, current conveyor 1. Introduction consequently consists in the fully monolithic integra- tion of the power converter together with the same cir- 1.

Despite the notable research efforts in the field of integrated switching In telecommunications and computing systems, the power converters, paradigm of energy-efficient pro- continuous trend in miniaturizing power processing cessing circuits, further investigations are required to subsystems, which are in charge of guaranteeing high achieve further miniaturization and better efficiency efficiency in the use of supply energy, stands from whilst retaining compatibility with an integrated tech- the global system-level impact of those subsystems in nology, in particular with digital CMOS technology, terms of volume and weight, and thus on portability.

In generation systems-on-chip SOC , a trend which pro- the investigation towards full-integration of switching vides a line of convergence for the implementation of power converters, research both on optimized converter current and future systems for portable, mobile and au- topologies [1—3] active devices [4], integrable passive tonomous applications, in which power management is elements [5—7] and control methods [8, 9] is required. Switching power converter control by means of a sliding-mode controller.

Thorough theoretical founda- Switching power converter circuits are characterized tions for the application of these sliding-mode tech- as nonlinear dynamic systems. This aspect justifies the niques to general systems exist in the literature [12, 13], lack of standard methods for modeling and control- and its application to the control of switching DC-DC ling those systems. In this sense, their conventional power converters is a topic of current interest [14—17].

In mance due to the use of fast-dynamics state variables of order to avoid sliding regimes with infinite switching the converter, being possible to point out, among others, frequencies, a practical approach to sliding-mode con- current-mode control, one-cycle control and sliding- trol requires the addition of a certain hysteresis level to mode control.

To illustrate the technique, Fig. In partic- of precision associated to the loss of negative feed- ular, no sliding-mode application specific integrated back, and the need to use mismatched current replicas circuit has ever been reported. Note that a high-speed when copying signals. It is worth noting, however, that implementation is required, since sliding-mode control this loss of precision reduces its impact in controller is an instantaneous time-domain technique that handles implementation applications, compared to the design state variables switching ripple, hence suffering from of open-loop processors e.

This fact is worsened by the contin- since in the former the global feedback lowers the preci- uous trend in increasing switching frequencies due to sion requirements. Last but not least, a standing feature the resulting volume and weight reduction in the power of current-mode operation is that, due to the operation circuit. Nevertheless, there exist digital implemen- ear principle associated to bipolar transistors is con- tations based on look-up-tables mapped on EPROMs sidered for the product operation required in power- [14], or by means of microcontrollers [16] that have factor-correction PFC circuits.

In the work presented shown to be effective for unpractically low switching herein, the use of current-mode circuit techniques frequencies i. On the other hand, the is proposed to synthesize, design and implement few existing analog implementations of sliding-mode a high-performance microelectronic analog sliding- controllers [17, 19] make use of classical voltage-mode mode controller. The use of current-mode circuit tech- processing, this is, they use high-gain operational am- niques results in an idealization in the sense of min- plifiers operated in closed-loop negative-feedback con- imum delay of the sliding-mode controller operation figurations, which results in severe bandwidth limita- in terms of speed.

It is well known in sliding-mode the- tions, both small-signal and large signal -slew rate-. The cir- techniques [20, 21] are considered in this work. It is well known [17, 19, 24]. The paper is devices such as bipolar transistors or large aspect-ratio summarized and conclusions are drawn in Section 4.

MOSTs , and thus, in a reduced impact of parasitic ca- pacitances, representing an increment in the maximum 2. Analog Processing Blocks Design Details operation speed of these circuits. Apart from this key effect, other advantages of current-mode processing are 2. Architecture of the current-mode high-speed analog sliding-mode controller for switching power converters. The designed circuit restricts the gen- differential floating voltages for the controller. This Note that since the controller prototype is designed notwithstanding, the architecture and the controller cir- as a standalone IC controller, the user flexibility is al- cuit is of general purpose due to its modular capabili- lowed by selection of external components that de- ties, since it can provide sliding control to a wide variety fine the controller parameters.

In the case of a fixed of switching DC-DC converters such as Buck, Boost, controller for on-chip power controllers, either passive Buck-Boost or higher order converters such as Cuk [15] components or their active emulation [10] should be and SEPIC [25]. Current Conveyor Building Block stage so as to force the control action described by Eq. With allel processing stages, and allows also the insertion of this purpose, the main building block used in the con- a current-mode synchronization ramp for the purpose troller is the current conveyor CCII , a building-block of controlling steady-state switching frequency [26].

The subsequent subcircuit performs a PID filtering action, and is included so as to eliminate steady-state errors and compensate the power converter dynamics [18]. Class-AB current conveyor building block. This analog- s processing block is in charge of several tasks within the sliding mode controller arquitecture. For the descrip- hence achieving the required compensating PID dy- tion, please refer to the upper branch of the controller namics in a compact current-input current-output im- depicted in Fig.

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The controller front-end is com- and versatile compensating dynamics to the controller. Hysteretic Current-Input Comparator signal Vins into current signal Is , by means of an ex- ternal resistor—RT s -that provides the inherently linear It is well known [14—17] that actual implementations transconductance G T s.

5.7 Sliding Mode Control

This highly linear transconduc- of sliding control require the addition of a certain hys- tor is a well-known input stage of differential input cir- teresis level to the output comparator which is in charge cuits [28]. Covering everything from equations to analog implantation, it: Provides a comprehensive general overview of SMC principles and methods Offers advanced readers a systematic exposition of the mathematical machineries and design principles relevant to construction of SMC, then introduces newer approaches Demonstrates the practical implementation and supporting design rules of SMC, based on analog circuits Promotes an appreciation of general nonlinear control by presenting it from a practical perspective and using familiar engineering terminology With specialized coverage of modeling and implementation that is useful to students and professionals in electrical and electronic engineering, this book clarifies SMC principles and their application to power converters.

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