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Fragments — Aristophanes, Jeffrey Henderson | Harvard University Press

The sophocles the plays and fragments volume offers under section. An introduction to this play must also, however, take account of its style in a more limited sense,—the style of its poetical diction, the complexion of the language. For the details of this subject, reference must necessarily be made to the commentary on the text. But a few general observations may properly be offered here. Qthgj- g r e a t poets, was developed through successive phases, belonging to successive periods of his life.

He himself, according to Plutarch1, distinguished three such phases. The first of these three phases, the Aeschylean, is not traceable in the extant work of Sophocles. Nor can it be said that any one of the seven tragedies represents the second style in a form which sharply distinguishes it from the third ; that is, in a form from which the characteristic quality of the third style is absent. But, if the Philoctetes, one of the very latest plays B. It is exquisitely moulded to the expression of her nature. Take, again, the scene where the Messenger, in Deianeira's presence, taxes Lichas with deceit vv.

In this aspect, then, the Trachiniae shows, like the Philoctetes, the full excellence of the third style,—that which is rjOiKtoTarov, ' most expressive of character. Every Greek tragedy contains at least one set speech, prjaK, of the type usually spoken by a messenger who relates a catastrophe. In such speeches, which were really short excursions of drama into the region of epos, the dramatist was convention1 One of these traits is notable,—the woiav Sbtajaw; This use of irotos, a common colloquialism, occurs in only one other passage of Tragedy, and that is in a late play of Euripides [Helen.

Now, it is a peculiarity of the Trachiniae that, beside two speeches which are normal examples of this class,—the speech of Hyllus vv. Such are the following short narratives ;—Lichas recounts the recent deeds of his master — ; Deianeira relates her meeting with Nessus — ; and describes the occurrence which rouses her fears concerning the ' love-charm' — : such, also, is the great speech of Heracles — n i l.

Altogether, about one fourth of the play consists of passages which invited or demanded this high elaboration of style, usually reserved for very exceptional moments. It is no accident that the element of narrative in the Trachiniae is so abnormally large; the cause lies in the nature of the fable itself, and is independent of the circumstance that an epic poem, the Capture of Oechalia, was probably one of the chief sources.

In narrative or description Sophocles exhibits, as a rule, two characteristics; he is remarkably terse; and he has a bold but artistic originality of phrase, often in a manner which resembles that of Vergil. If the passages just cited from the Trachiniae are compared with their only proper analogues, the set prjcreK of the poet's other plays, it will be felt that, with allowance for differences of degree, the essential quality of style is the same; the greater frequency of it is the distinction of the Trachiniae.

This play, like the Philoctetes, is mainly an example of that Sophoclean manner which tradition calls the third or ripest,—the manner ' best fitted to express character.


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This is a peculiar combination of elements; and it tends to make a reader feel that the style of the Trachiniae is somehow, as a whole, unlike the style found in any one of the other six plays. The extent to which the Trachiniae shows the influ- Supposed ence of Euripides has sometimes been exaggerated. Stress has Euripides. But here we must distinguish. The prologue of the Trachiniae is Euripidean only in so far as it is partly historical; it is utterly unlike the typical prologues of Euripides in being dramatic.

For, in the first place, Deianeira's speech is no soliloquy,—though it is true that she is rather communing with her own thoughts than directly addressing the Nurse; it gives the cue for the Nurse's suggestion that Hyllus should be sent to seek his father, and thus serves to set the drama in motion.

Secondly, it is dramatic as illustrating the mind of Deianeira herself,—that mind which is to govern the subsequent action2. Even with regard to this prologue, the inner contrast between the two poets is more significant than the resemblance. Nor can it be said that the general style of the play shows any pervading influence of the supposed kind. Axt, Commentatio critica qua Trachiniarum Sophochae prologum suhdititium esse demonstratur.

Axt uses the term 'prologue,' not in the Greek sense i. He holds that the play ought to begin at v. He was well acquainted with the works of Euripides, and admired them; in his later years, they influenced him in details of language and of versification. But the style of Sophocles, so far as extant work shows, always preserved a thoroughly distinctive character. Certainly the Trachiniae is no exception to that rule; and not merely the style, but the whole mind which appears there, attests the authorship.

And Tr. The last-named was collated by Porson with the text of the Trachiniae in the ed. There remains only a Venetian MS. It is described by him as ' chartaceus, saec. L, and ten of the twelve named above, the two exceptions being V and V3.


  1. Plays and Fragments.
  2. Practical Astronomy with your Calculator or Spreadsheet, 4th Edition.
  3. The Notebooks of Malte Laurids Brigge (Penguin Twentieth Century Classics).
  4. As a contribution to an intricate and obscure subject, it is interesting to notice the view as to the relationships of his twelve MSS. He would distinguish three families : 1 L2 and K are transcripts of L. He recognises the marked superiority of L to all the other MSS. See Oed. With regard to the readings of L, and its peculiarities as a MS.

    The first corrector S has in four instances supplied a verse which the scribe had accidentally omitted , added in the text, being the last line of p. In , however, the words v, omitted from the text, have been added in the margin by the scribe himself. There is one passage, vv. Thus at L omits XO. The result can be traced in modern literary criticism : see above, p. The scholia in L on vv.

    The Plays and Fragments (Oxford World's Classics)

    KrjTov, corrupted in the MSS. There are two other places where the scholiast gives at least the hint by which a lost reading can be restored. And in the schol. In vv.

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    Besides these verses, many others—not fewer than about in all—have been suspected or rejected by various commentators ; often, apparently, on the general ground that anything is suspicious which is not indispensable. Thus Nauck, in condemning four verses — —verses full of pathos and beauty, and free from any real offence against Greek poetical idiom—writes :—' Diese entbehrlichen und in sprachlicher Hinsicht vielfach Anstoss erregenden Verse werden von V.

    Jernstedt wohl mit Recht als interpolirt bezeichnet' Let the reader examine the passage for himself, and judge.

    Yet it is right that students should have notice as to what verses of the play have been suspected or condemned by scholars of mark. I cannot vouch for the completeness of the following ' black list,' but I believe that it is nearly complete :— 17 Bergk. Schenkl after Dobree.

    Nauck would reduce these two vv. IJO— Dindorf. Wecklein suspects only v. Hense and Nauck. Wunder and Blaydes. Dobree and Wecklein suspect the v. Bergk without defining the limit: p. Dindorf had suspected v. Hermann 1st ed. Schneidewin has argued against this theory Abhandlung uber die Track, d.

    It rests, in fact, on no solid foundation. With regard to the discrepancies between the MSS. As to the supposed duplications of sense in the passages where a mixing of two texts has been assumed, a study of the context in each case will best show the baselessness of the assumption. The text of the Trachiniae contains its full share of problems; though, as a whole, it is, in my opinion, less corrupt than has often been supposed.

    In two instances I have admitted emendations of my own to the text, viz.