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In This Article Bibliography Notes. Show Summary Details Bibliography updated to reflect current scholarship; keywords added. Updated on 7 March The previous version of this content can be found here. The first of these achievements was not very difficult, provided a man had at least equestrian standing see equites , some military or oratorical ability, and good connections.

But few men rose from outside the senate to a consulship, and the most frequent use of the term in fact characterizes this unusual achievement. It took unusual merit and effort and either noble patronage e.


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Updated in Two types of war were carried on by Viriatus, bellum , when he used a regular army, and latrocinium , when the fighting involved small groups of combatants and the use of guerrilla tactics. Nothing is known about Viriatus until his first feat of war in BC, he was with an army of ten thousand men that invaded southern Turdetania.

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Rome sent the praetor Caius Vetilius to fight the rebellion, he attacked a group of Lusitanian warriors who were out foraging, and after several of them were killed, the survivors took refuge in a place that was surrounded by the Roman army. They were about to make a new agreement with the Romans when Viriatus, mistrusting the Romans, proposed an escape plan; the Lusitanians, inflamed by his speech, made him their new commander. His first act was to rescue the trapped and resisting Lusitanians whom he then commanded, first by lining up for battle with the Romans, then scattering the army as they charged; as each wave broke apart and fled in different directions to meet up at a later location, Viriatus with 1, chosen men held the army of 10, Romans in check by being in a position to attack.

Once the rest of the army had fled, he and the thousand men escaped as well.

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Having effectively saved all of the Lusitanians soldiers, he immediately fortified the loyalty of the people around himself. Viriatus organized an attack against Caius Vetilius in Tribola. Since the Romans were better armed, he organized guerrilla tactics and sprang imaginative ambushes.

Charging with iron spears, tridents and roars, the Lusitanians defeated Vetilius, killing 4, out of 10, soldiers, including Vetilius himself. In response, Celtiberians were hired to attack the Lusitanians, but were destroyed. After that incident, the Lusitanians clashed with the armies of Gaius Plautius , Claudius Unimanus and Gaius Negidius , all of whom were defeated.

During this period Viriatus inspired and convinced the Numantine and some Gauls to rebel against Roman rule. To complete the subjugation of Lusitania, Rome sent Quintus Fabius Maximus Aemilianus , with 15, soldiers and 2, cavalry to strengthen Gaius Laelius Sapiens who was a personal friend of Scipio Aemilianus Africanus. The results of Viriatus's efforts as well as those of the Numantine War caused many problems in Rome, the most notable being a drop in legionary recruitment rates.

Near Sierra Morena , the Romans fell into a Lusitanian ambush. However, the peace brought by the treaty displeased Quintus Servilius Caepio , who got himself appointed successor to his brother, Q. Fabius Maximus Servilianus, in the command of the army and administration of affairs in Iberia. In his reports to the Roman Senate he claimed that the treaty was in the highest degree dishonourable to Rome.

Livy seemed to have a different opinion as he writes it was a stain on Servilianus' military career but comments that the treaty was, aequis , fair; [17] the senate authorised Q. Servilius Caepio, on his request, to harass Viriathus as long as it was done secretly; the treaty was in effect for one year.

During that time Q. Servilius Caepio harassed Viriathus and kept pressuring with his reports until he was authorised publicly to declare war. Knowing that the Lusitanian resistance was largely due to Viriathus' leadership, Caepio bribed Audax, Ditalcus and Minurus , who had been sent by Viriathus as an embassy to establish peace Appian [45] ; these ambassadors returned to their camp and killed Viriathus while he was sleeping. Eutropius claims that when Viriathus' assassins asked Q.

Servilius Caepio for their payment he answered that "it was never pleasing to the Romans, that a general should be killed by his own soldiers. Servilius Caepio was refused his Triumph by the Senate. Laenas would finally give the Lusitanians the land they originally had asked for before the massacre. Nevertheless, total pacification of Lusitania was only achieved under Augustus. Under Roman rule , Lusitania and its people gradually acquired Roman culture and language.

Viriathus stands as the most successful leader who ever opposed the Roman conquest in Iberia. During the course of his campaigns he was only defeated in battle against the Romans once, and from a military standpoint can be said to have been one of the most successful generals to have ever opposed Rome's expansion. Ultimately, even the Romans recognized that it was more prudent to use treachery rather than open confrontation to defeat the Lusitanian uprising; some fifty years later, the renegade Roman general Quintus Sertorius , at the head of another insurrection in Iberia , would meet a similar fate.

Viriathus became an enduring symbol of Portuguese nationality and independence, portrayed by artists and celebrated by its people throughout the centuries. Hispania Hispania was the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula and its provinces. During the Principate , Hispania Ulterior was divided into two new provinces and Lusitania , while Hispania Citerior was renamed Hispania Tarraconensis. Subsequently, the western part of Tarraconensis was split off, first as Hispania Nova renamed " Callaecia ".

From Diocletian's Tetrarchy onwards, the south of remaining Tarraconensis was again split off as Carthaginensis , then too the Balearic Islands and all the resulting provinces formed one civil diocese under the vicarius for the Hispaniae; the name, was used in the period of Visigothic rule. The modern placenames Hispaniola are both derived from Hispania; the origin of the word Hispania is much disputed and the evidence for the various speculations are based upon what are at best mere resemblances to be accidental, suspect supporting evidence.


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  8. One theory holds it to be from the Phoenician language of colonizing Carthage. Some Roman coins of the Emperor Hadrian , born in Hispania, depict a rabbit.

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    Others derive the word from Phoenician span, meaning "hidden", make it indicate "a hidden", that is, "a remote", or "far-distant land". Isidore of Sevilla considered Hispania derived from Hispalis. Hispalis may alternatively derive from Heliopolis. Hispania was called Hesperia Ultima, "the last western land" in Greek , by Roman writers, since the name Hesperia had been used by the Greeks to indicate the Italian peninsula. Another theory holds that the name derives from Ezpanna, the Basque word for "border" or "edge", thus meaning the farthest area or place.

    During Antiquity and Middle Ages , the literary texts derive the term Hispania from an eponymous hero named Hispan, mentioned for the first time in the work of the Roman historian Gnaeus Pompeius Trogus , in the 1st century BC.

    A document dated mentions the names of foreigners from Medieval Spain as "Gracien d'Espaigne". Latin expressions using "Hispania" or "Hispaniae" like "omnes reges Hispaniae" are used in the Middle Ages at the same time as the emerging Spain Romance languages during the Reconquista use the Romance version interchangeably.

    In James Ist Chronicle Llibre dels fets, written between and , there are many instances of this: when it talks about the different Kings, "los V regnes de Espanya"; the Latin term Hispania used during Antiquity and the Low Middle Ages as a geographical name, starts to be used with political connotations, as shown in the expression "Laus Hispaniae" to describe the history of the peoples of the Iberian Peninsula of Isidore of Seville's "Historia de regibus Gothorum, Vandalorum et Suevorum". You, by right, are now the queen of all provinces, from whom the lights are given not only the sunset, but the East.

    You are the honor and ornament of the orb and the most illustrious portion of the Earth And for this reason, long ago, the golden Rome desired you In modern history and Spanish have become associated with the Kingdom of Spain alone, although this process took several centuries. After the union of the central peninsular Kingdom of Castile with the eastern peninsular Kingdom of Aragon in the 15th century under the Catholic Monarchs in , onl. It coincides with the Catholic festivity of Our Lady of Guadalupe.

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    It is located in the Southern Plateau. In the centre is the Sierra de las Villuercas , which reaches an altitude of 1, m on the Pico de las Villuercas.

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    The basin of the Douro with only 35 km2 in Extremadura. The climate of Extremadura is hot-summer Mediterranean. In the north of Extremadura, the average temperatures are lower than those in the south, with temperatures rising south towards the Sierra Morena, where they drop because of the altitude. The average snowfall is 40 cm occurring in January and February on high ground. Lusitania , an ancient Roman province including current day Portugal and a central western portion of the current day Spain, covered in those times today's Autonomous Community of Extremadura.

    The kingdom in turn broke up twice under Almohad push. Extremadura, an impoverished region of Spain whose difficult conditions pushed many of its ambitious young men to seek their fortunes overseas, was the source of many of the initial Spanish conquerors and settlers in America.