Guide International Politics: Political Issues Under Debate - Vol. 1

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First published in , European Political Science EPS presents articles that explore research matters including debates within the discipline, research projects, information sources and funding opportunities; professional matters such as career structures and prospects, external evaluation, higher education reforms and accreditation issues; doctoral training and teaching topics; and relations between academics and politicians, policy-makers, journalists and ordinary citizens.

EPS also includes more substantive pieces that provide a political science perspective on important current events. In addition to original articles, each issue includes shorter notes, review articles and symposia, progress reports on lively areas of research, profiles of people in the profession, and book reviews. Reaching beyond its core focus on European affairs and the development of the discipline, the journal also publishes work that compares politics in Europe with other continents and countries, as well as research focused on other regions that would be of interest to its readership of political scientists in Europe and around the world.

As the professional journal of the European Consortium for Political Research, European Political Science is a prime outlet for research notes and opinion pieces about the political science profession itself, including teaching and learning contributions. The journal also publishes symposia, academic debates and original datasets. European Political Science 1. Representations and practices produce meanings, constitute identities, establish social relations, and make possible certain political and ethical outcomes. Following Foucault, power is deemed to have disciplinary and productive capacity, and is assigned a central place in discourse analysis.

It seeks to do this by probing the historical production of structures, actors, identities, problems, and solutions in IR. In sum IR theories in the West span a wide spectrum and exist in fragmented space with little interaction and integration. There is little consensus on what counts as theory. For some, all perspectives that seek to explain, understand, constitute, or alter the world irrespective of their epistemology and methodology qualify as theory. For those wedded to explanation and the scientific method, post-positivist theories have yet to prove themselves through a serious and comprehensive research program Keohane, Other approaches like scientific realism and critical realism seek new ways of integrating material and ideational influences to explain or understand international interaction Kurki and Wight, Some scholars advocate an eclectic approach with the focus on problem solving Katzenstein and Sil, Despite the proliferation of paradigms and theories, knowledge creation, validation, and accumulation in the form of incremental knowledge building or paradigm replacement in Kuhnian fashion has not occurred.

Grand theorizing appears to have exhausted itself with emphasis possibly shifting to mid-level theorizing.

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The net effect has been to make the IR theoretical landscape more diverse, complex, and somewhat confusing, even for the initiated raising the question if IR is still a discipline Waever, American approaches and methods have made significant inroads in the United Kingdom and Europe, but they also sparked a backlash, invigorating alternative perspectives like those discussed earlier as well as the English School. In their quest to create a genuinely international discipline, some Western scholars have begun to investigate scholarship of IR in developing regions and countries Waever and Tickner, Drawn to the idea of alternative knowledge sites, a small number have been attracted to critical approaches.

There is also a nascent effort to construct indigenous approaches and theories. Reflecting national circumstances, concerns, and demands, the development of IRS in China, Japan, and India has followed distinctive paths.

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Distinctiveness is evident in master narratives, intellectual predispositions, and institutional opportunities, which taken together have framed the development of IRS as a field and discipline in these three countries. Over the last 60 years master narratives for IR studies in China, Japan, and India have undergone fundamental change.

In China the master narrative was transformed from a revolutionary state seeking to overthrow the existing international order, to a normal state seeking to integrate with and benefiting from the existing order, to a rising power seeking its rightful place in the international order, and finally, to reconstructing and reordering the world from a Chinese perspective. The primary purpose of IRS in China in the exclusively state-led phase — was to legitimate the CCP, serve the foreign policy of the communist state, and train its diplomats.

State ideology and demands including foreign policy objectives focused IRS on promoting the superiority of socialism and the crisis of capitalism, studying international communism and the Soviet model, investigating international contradictions and revolutionary movements in the Third World, and safeguarding China's national security Wang, IR teaching and research centered on issues connected to national security, consolidation of the domestic and international position of the CCP, conception of the world in the context of the Soviet-American bipolar confrontation and China's solidarity with Socialist states, interpretation of Marxist-Leninist ideology and Mao's thoughts to develop action-oriented theory in support of China's foreign policy objectives, and elaboration of concepts like the Three World's theory and national strategies like the united front strategy, leaning to one side articulated by leaders Qin, b.

Beginning in the late s a sea change occurred in China's national objectives and international orientation in the context of a fundamental reappraisal of the international situation. China sought to become a modernized, prosperous, and powerful country.

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These objectives were to be achieved through a far-reaching modernization program that relied heavily on reform, opening up, and integrating the Chinese economy into the global capitalist economy. These changes along with a substantial reduction in the status and role of the communist ideology dramatically altered the purpose and scope of IRS in China. Although serving national policy as articulated by the CCP continued to be the principal purpose of IRS, space opened up for discussion and debate over how national objectives were to be achieved.

The nature of the international system, what constitutes China's national interest in a changing domestic and international context, and how the international system could be harnessed to realize China's national objectives all became legitimate foci of inquiry.

The IRS master narrative underwent further change with the rapid rise of China initially to regional power and subsequently to global power status. Changes in master narratives were captured in the debates among Chinese IR scholars. According to Qin there have been three overlapping debates since the early s.

The first early s to mids was between orthodox and reformist scholars over the nature of the international system conflict and war prone, or peace and development oriented and how China should relate to it as a revolutionary or normal state. The second debate from about the mids between realists and liberals was over how China should seek to achieve its national objective of becoming a prosperous and powerful country: through power and competition or through cooperation and participation in international institutions.

The third debate centered on the issue of whether China can rise peacefully without upsetting the international order. Realists argued that peaceful rise is a contradiction in terms and that China's rise will inevitably lead to conflict with the dominant power. Liberals argued that cooperation and participation in regional and global institutions could advance China's modernization goal and reduce the prospect of conflict and war. Constructivists argued that the process of cooperation would bring about a change in China's identity and make it a valuable member of international society with a status quo orientation.

This would facilitate China's peaceful rise. Other major topics of discussion among Chinese scholars in the post period included the material structure of the international system multipolar or hegemonic , China's relations with other major powers, especially the United States peer competitor or strategic partner , Asian regionalism, global issues, and international governance. At the turn of the century, the IRS master narrative in China broadened further to include the production of knowledge issues with a focus not only on integrating China into the world but also on constructing the world and its governance from Chinese perspectives.


This may pave the way for a new debate centered on the question of world order. Changing master narratives since broadened the purpose and scope of IRS in China increasing the space for independent scholarship and different perspectives. As in China, Japan's IRS master narratives followed a distinct trajectory determined largely by post-war developments in and affecting Japan and that country's meteoric economic rise and subsequent stagnation.

From through the early s, two sets of master research questions dominated IR studies in Japan. The first emanated from Japan's devastating defeat and destruction in World War II and its emergence from that war as an occupied state. The key questions in this set were: What went wrong?

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What led to the Pacific War? And, why did Japan suffer defeat?

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The second set related to Japan's security in the context of the Cold War confrontation. The central question was: How best to secure Japan's survival and its objective of a strong economy in a highly polarized world? Both these sets of master questions focused on war and security influenced the development of IRS in Japan till the early s Inoguchi, , ; Yamamoto, A series of domestic and international developments in the s reduced the salience of these questions. Attention shifted to the political economy domain reorienting the master research questions toward the nature of the international system power politics or international interdependence , friction in Japan's economic relations with the United States, Japan's regional economic role leader of a flock of flying geese , and a broader definition of Japan's security comprehensive security.

With Japan emerging as the world's second largest economy and a widespread perception in and out of Japan that it was set to become the world's premier economic power, the master narrative shifted again in the s to focus on Japan's global role global civilian power , the alliance relationship with the United States, and the search for an international status befitting its economic position. From a focus on history, war, and security, Japanese IRS in this stage expanded its scope to include international political economy, international trade, international interdependence, international institutions, transnational relations, civil society, comprehensive security, human rights, and human security.

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The rise of China, relative decline of the United States, and continuing economic stagnation and political instability in Japan may set in train a new master narrative that re-ignites an earlier debate on how best to ensure Japan's security and prosperity but this time in the context of rising Asian powers. Such a narrative would refocus attention on the future of the alliance with the United States, Sino-Japanese relations, East Asia community building, and Japan's regional and global position and role. Changing master narratives were reflected in debates among Japanese scholars and public intellectuals.

Yamamoto identifies three debates in Japan. The first debate during the interwar period was a critique of idealism.

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The second debate in the aftermath of World War II and in the context of the Cold War centered on the best way to secure Japan: through alliance with the United States or through neutrality and reliance on the universal UN security system. The third debate in the s and s centered on the nature of the international system power politics or interdependence and how best to secure Japanese interests in that system comprehensive security.

Successive transformations in master research questions have broadened the scope of IRS in Japan, which has absorbed some features from the West but fused them with indigenous ones to maintain a distinct identity Inoguchi, ; Yamamoto, Traversing three overlapping phases, the development of IRS in India has traveled an indigenous path as well. In the second phase from early s through early s preservation of national security in an increasingly hostile neighborhood became the primary focus.

National security continues to be a key focus in the ongoing third phase that began in the early s, but is defined broadly to include non-traditional dimensions as well. The contemporary master narrative also emphasizes modernization and development of India through careful participation in the global economy, and the realization of an international status and role befitting an outward oriented, rising India. Non-alignment constituted the defining narrative in the first stage Behera, ; Mallavarapu, It was an original, multifaceted idea and concept that: i conceptualized post-World War II international politics as power politics; ii sought to create political space for organization and interaction of newly independent states and construct a normative structure to support the creation of a more equitable international order; and iii defined the orientation of India's foreign and security policy.

IRS in India in this period focused on explicating and debating the rationales and meanings of the non-alignment concept, its role in Indian foreign policy, and its adequacy in addressing India's security concerns. It also explored related issues like strengthening international organizations, decolonization, disarmament, creating a non-discriminatory non-proliferation regime, and a new international economic order.

The study of Indian foreign policy was another major thrust of IRS in this era. Operationalization of this thrust in terms of relations with key countries and understanding critical regions contributed to the dramatic growth of relational and area studies in the s. IR in India came to be conflated with relational and area studies under the label of International Studies Sharma, Although science, technology, and economics were also emphasized by post-independence India, for a number of reasons these areas did not figure significantly in IRS.

International political economy, for example, was considered the preserve of economists who had a privileged position in advising the Indian government Baru, Pursuit of security defined in traditional terms was the master narrative in the second phase Behera, Disillusionment with the earlier worldview and an increasingly hostile neighborhood compelled the Indian government to rethink its national security strategy and modify its foreign policy orientation.

National security, defined in traditional terms, and the belief that India's security required the development of coercive power came to dominate policy. India's nuclear posture, nuclear doctrine, nuclear cooperation, regional stability, space programs, and related global regimes Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, Non-Proliferation Treaty, Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty, etc. Termination of the Cold War and the opening up of the Indian economy especially after signaled the beginning of a third phase.