Most qualify as an internist , pediatrician , or gynecologist for a few years before specializing, depending on the local training system. In the U.
Further formal training to subspecialize in adult, pediatric , or reproductive endocrinology is called a fellowship. Typical training for a North American endocrinologist involves 4 years of college, 4 years of medical school, 3 years of residency, and 2 years of fellowship. Endocrinology also involves study of the diseases of the endocrine system.
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These diseases may relate to too little or too much secretion of a hormone, too little or too much action of a hormone, or problems with receiving the hormone. Because endocrinology encompasses so many conditions and diseases, there are many organizations that provide education to patients and the public. The Hormone Foundation is the public education affiliate of The Endocrine Society and provides information on all endocrine-related conditions.
Other educational organizations that focus on one or more endocrine-related conditions include the American Diabetes Association , Human Growth Foundation, American Menopause Foundation, Inc. In the United Kingdom, the Society for Endocrinology  and the British Society for Paediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes  are the main professional organisations. The European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology  is the largest international professional association dedicated solely to paediatric endocrinology. There are numerous similar associations around the world.
The earliest study of endocrinology began in China.
Endocrinology and Molecular Medicine
Although most of the relevant tissues and endocrine glands had been identified by early anatomists, a more humoral approach to understanding biological function and disease was favoured by the ancient Greek and Roman thinkers such as Aristotle , Hippocrates , Lucretius , Celsus , and Galen , according to Freeman et al. In , Arnold Berthold noted that castrated cockerels did not develop combs and wattles or exhibit overtly male behaviour. In fact, one of two other things could have been true: that the testes modified or activated a constituent of the blood or that the testes removed an inhibitory factor from the blood.
It was not proven that the testes released a substance that engenders male characteristics until it was shown that the extract of testes could replace their function in castrated animals. Pure, crystalline testosterone was isolated in The Graves' disease was named after Irish doctor Robert James Graves ,  who described a case of goiter with exophthalmos in The German Karl Adolph von Basedow also independently reported the same constellation of symptoms in , while earlier reports of the disease were also published by the Italians Giuseppe Flajani and Antonio Giuseppe Testa, in and respectively,  and by the English physician Caleb Hillier Parry a friend of Edward Jenner in the late 18th century.
In William Bayliss and Ernest Starling performed an experiment in which they observed that acid instilled into the duodenum caused the pancreas to begin secretion, even after they had removed all nervous connections between the two. They named this substance " secretin " and coined the term hormone for chemicals that act in this way. Joseph von Mering and Oskar Minkowski made the observation in that removing the pancreas surgically led to an increase in blood sugar , followed by a coma and eventual death—symptoms of diabetes mellitus.
In , Banting and Best realized that homogenizing the pancreas and injecting the derived extract reversed this condition. Neurohormones were first identified by Otto Loewi in The solution was then used to bathe a non-innervated second heart. If the vagus nerve on the first heart was stimulated, negative inotropic beat amplitude and chronotropic beat rate activity were seen in both hearts. This did not occur in either heart if the vagus nerve was not stimulated.
The vagus nerve was adding something to the saline solution. The effect could be blocked using atropine , a known inhibitor to heart vagal nerve stimulation. Clearly, something was being secreted by the vagus nerve and affecting the heart. The "vagusstuff" as Loewi called it causing the myotropic muscle enhancing effects was later identified to be acetylcholine and norepinephrine. Loewi won the Nobel Prize for his discovery.
Recent work in endocrinology focuses on the molecular mechanisms responsible for triggering the effects of hormones. The first example of such work being done was in by Earl Sutherland.
Endocrinology: An Integrated Approach - S.S. Nussey, S.A. Whitehead - Google книги
Sutherland investigated whether hormones enter cells to evoke action, or stayed outside of cells. He studied norepinephrine , which acts on the liver to convert glycogen into glucose via the activation of the phosphorylase enzyme. He homogenized the liver into a membrane fraction and soluble fraction phosphorylase is soluble , added norepinephrine to the membrane fraction, extracted its soluble products, and added them to the first soluble fraction. Phosphorylase activated, indicating that norepinephrine's target receptor was on the cell membrane, not located intracellularly.
He later identified the compound as cyclic AMP cAMP and with his discovery created the concept of second-messenger-mediated pathways. He, like Loewi, won the Nobel Prize for his groundbreaking work in endocrinology. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the academic journal, see Endocrinology journal. Illustration depicting the primary endocrine organs of a female.
Main article: Endocrine system. Examples of amine hormones. Vitamin D 3. Examples of steroid hormones. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA. Archived from the original on Retrieved Endocrinology: An Integrated Approach. Oxford: Bios Scientific Publ. Textbook of endocrine physiology 4th ed.
Oxford [Oxfordshire]: Oxford University Press. American Diabetes Association. London: Andre Deutsch. Hoppe-Seyler's Z Physiol Chem. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine.
Endocrinology Integrated Approach by S S Nussey
The mechanism of pancreatic secretion. J Physiol ;— Macleod and the discovery of insulin".
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Other specialties. Anatomy of the endocrine system. Pars intermedia Pars tuberalis Pars distalis Acidophil cell Somatotropic cell Prolactin cell Somatomammotrophic cell Basophil cell Corticotropic cell Gonadotropic cell Thyrotropic cell Chromophobe cell. Malik M. Clinical Guide to Cardiac Autonomic Tests. Differing effects of age on heart rate variability in men and women.
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Heart rate variability standards of measurement, physiological interpretation, and clinical use. Eur Heart J ; Exercise training improves baroreflex sensitivity in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes ; Cardiac autonomic dysfunction in type 2 diabetes - Effect of hyperglycemia and disease duration. Front Endocrinol Lausanne ; This article has been cited by 1 Effect of yoga on cardiac autonomic dysfunction and insulin resistance in non-diabetic offspring of typediabetes parents: A randomized controlled study Satish G.
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Table 1: Changes in resting heart rate and heart rate variability Click here to view. Table 2: Changes in deep breathing test and isometric hand grip test Click here to view. Table 3: Changes in parameters of glycemic control Click here to view. This article has been cited by. Effect of yoga on cardiac autonomic dysfunction and insulin resistance in non-diabetic offspring of typediabetes parents: A randomized controlled study. Satish G. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice. Short-term effect of add on bell pepper Capsicum annuum var.
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