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Materials Science Mechanical Engineering - Part 5 Failure Analysis Explained

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Free delivery worldwide on over 20 million titles. Figure 1. Figure 2. Schematic drawings that illustrate the concept of slip bands [21], and the creation of intrusions and extrusions that are the precursors to fatigue crack nucleation. Image from Dieter pg. Figure 3.

Slip band protrusions in single crystal Cu showing the nucleation of fatigue cracks. Image from Ma and Laird [9]. The third type of fatigue crack nucleation is crack nucleation at defects [10, 11]. These defects can take a number of different forms: non metallic inclusions, second phase particles, notches, pores, etc. This mechanism is much more localized, due to the increased stress in the region around the defect due to its stress concentration.

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In aluminum alloy AA T, a common aerospace alloy, there is a very large fraction of Fe-containing second phase particles. These particles are more prevalent at grain boundaries, and are of the same length scale as the grains in the L-S plane which is the plane that has the slowest fatigue crack growth rate. High-cycle fatigue, then, is concerned with failure corresponding to stress cycles greater than cycles.

As noted previously, it is always good engineering practice to conduct a testing program on the materials to be employed in design and manufacture.

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This, in fact, is a requirement, not an option, in guarding against the possibility of a fatigue failure. Thus our primary purpose in studying fatigue is to understand why failures occur so that we can guard against them in an optimum man- ner. For this reason, the analytical design approaches presented in this book, or in any other book, for that matter, do not yield absolutely precise results. The results should be taken as a guide, as something that indicates what is important and what is not impor- tant in designing against fatigue failure. As stated earlier, the stress-life method is the least accurate approach especially for low-cycle applications.

However, it is the most traditional method, with much published data available. It is the easiest to implement for a wide range of design applications and represents high-cycle applications adequately. For these reasons the stress-life method will be emphasized in subsequent sections of this chapter. However, care should be exercised when applying the method for low-cycle applications, as the method does not account for the true stress-strain behavior when localized yielding occurs. The approach can be used to estimate fatigue strengths, but when it is so used it is necessary to compound several idealizations, and so some uncertain- ties will exist in the results.

For this reason, the method is presented here only because of its value in explaining the nature of fatigue.

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A fatigue failure almost always begins at a local discontinuity such as a notch, crack, or other area of stress concentration. When the stress at the discontinuity exceeds the elastic limit, plastic strain occurs. If a fatigue fracture is to occur, there must exist cyclic plastic strains. Thus we shall need to investigate the behavior of materials sub- ject to cyclic deformation.

Landgraf has investigated the low-cycle fatigue behavior of a large number of very high-strength steels, and during his research he made many cyclic stress-strain plots. In this case the strength decreases with stress repetitions, as evidenced by the fact that the reversals occur at ever-smaller stress levels. As previously noted, other materials may be strengthened, instead, by cyclic stress reversals.

Note that the slope ofthe line AB is the modulus of Belasticity E. Reprinted with permission 1. The plastic-strain line begins at this point in Fig. Note in Fig. If the number of stress reversals is 2N, then N is the number of cycles. Now, from Fig. Many more are included in the SAE J report.

Shigley's Mechanical Engineering Design

The question of how to determine the total strain at the bottom of a notch or discontinuity has not been answered. There are no tables or charts of strain concentration factors in the literature. Crystal slip that extends through several contiguous grains, inclusions, and surface imperfections is pre- sumed to play a role. Since most of this is invisible to the observer, we just say that stage I involves several grains. The second phase, that of crack extension, is called stage II fatigue.

The advance of the crack that is, new crack area is created does produce evi- dence that can be observed on micrographs from an electron microscope.